Quarterly Publication

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Industrial Engineering, Kish Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish, Iran.

2 Government Information Headquarters Inspur Software Group Company Ltd, Jinan, China.


Forest fires represent a significant threat to natural ecosystems and human lives, necessitating early detection and rapid response for effective mitigation. In recent years, the Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a promising technology for forest fire detection. IoT-based solutions leverage Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which consist of sensor nodes equipped with various sensors, data processing capabilities, and wireless communication, all powered by batteries. Energy efficiency is a critical consideration for WSNs, as they lack the luxury of periodic recharging. This paper explores the utilization of IoT-enabled WSNs in forest fire detection, with a specific focus on the sensor nodes' ability to monitor environmental parameters such as temperature, pressure, and humidity, as well as chemical indicators including Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen Dioxide. The self-healing and self-organizing characteristics of IoT sensor networks enhance their reliability and robustness in remote forested areas. ZigBee, based on IEEE 802.15.4, is a wireless technology that has gained prominence due to its low-cost, battery-powered applications and suitability for low data rates and short-range communications. This paper highlights the advancements, challenges, and potential applications of IoT-enabled WSNs for forest fire detection, underscoring the expanding possibilities enabled by the rapid development of the IoT. It emphasizes the growing research interest in IoT sensor networks and their potential deployment in various domains. The insights provided aim to contribute to ongoing efforts in developing efficient forest fire detection systems, ultimately enhancing the safety and preservation of our natural environment.


[1]     Yuan, L., Thomas, R. A., Rowland, J. H., & Zhou, L. (2018). Early fire detection for underground diesel fuel storage areas. Process safety and environmental protection, 119, 69–74. DOI:10.1016/j.psep.2018.07.022
[2]     Zhang, J. J., Ye, Z. Y., & Li, K. F. (2020). Multi-sensor information fusion detection system for fire robot through back propagation neural network. PLoS one, 15(7), e0236482. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0236482
[3]     Hantson, S., Andela, N., Goulden, M. L., & Randerson, J. T. (2022). Human-ignited fires result in more extreme fire behavior and ecosystem impacts. Nature communications, 13(1), 2717. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-022-30030-2
[4]     Rowland, J. H., Litton, C. D., & Thomas, R. A. (2016). Evaluation of detection and response times of fire sensors using an atmospheric monitoring system. Transactions, 340(1), 104–112. DOI:10.19150/trans.7334
[5]     Novkovic, I., Markovic, G. B., Lukic, D., Dragicevic, S., Milosevic, M., Djurdjic, S., … Tadic, M. (2021). Gis-based forest fire susceptibility zonation with iot sensor network support, case study—nature park Golija, Serbia. Sensors, 21(19), 6520. DOI:10.3390/s21196520
[6]     Abdullahi, A., Bonet, M. U., Chiedu, U. O., Muhammed, A., & Arinze, U. O. (2023). Intelligent aircraft hangar fire detection and location system based on wireless sensor network. EAI endorsed transactions on smart cities, 7(2), e5. DOI:10.4108/eetsc.3742
[7]     Singh, J., Kaur, R., & Singh, D. (2021). Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks: A taxonomic survey. International journal of energy research, 45(1), 118–140. DOI:10.1002/er.5816
[8]     Singh, R. (2021). A review on wireless sensor technologies. Asian journal of multidimensional research, 10(12), 194–200.
[9]     Behera, T. M., Samal, U. C., Mohapatra, S. K., Khan, M. S., Appasani, B., Bizon, N., & Thounthong, P. (2022). Energy-efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: Architectures, strategies, and performance. Electronics, 11(15), 2282. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152282
[10]      Mendhe, D., Padole, M., Jodhe, M., Badole, S., Iqbal, R., & Samarth, U. (2023). Forest fire detection system based on wireless. Journal of network & information security, 11(2). https://openurl.ebsco.com/
[11]   Hezekiah, J. D. K., Ramya, K. C., Selvan, M. P., Kumarasamy, V. M., Sah, D. K., Devendran, M., … Maheswar, R. (2023). Nature-inspired energy enhancement technique for wireless sensor networks. Energies, 16(20), 7021. DOI:10.3390/en16207021
[12]   Vani, G., Shariff, N. C., & Biradar, R. K. L. (2022). An investigation of secure authentication systems in wireless sensor networks. International journal of early childhood special education, 14(3). https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
[13]   Gandhar, S., Sharma, K., Verma, N., Goel, D., & Shubham, Y. (2022). A real-time solar powered fire detection system. Journal of information and optimization sciences, 43(1), 85–92. DOI:10.1080/02522667.2022.2039460
[14]   He, D., Cui, Y., Ming, F., & Wu, W. (2023). Advancements in passive wireless sensors, materials, devices, and applications. Sensors (Switzerland), 23(19), 8200. DOI:10.3390/s23198200
[15]   Dampage, U., Bandaranayake, L., Wanasinghe, R., Kottahachchi, K., & Jayasanka, B. (2022). Forest fire detection system using wireless sensor networks and machine learning. Scientific reports, 12(1), 46. DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-03882-9
[16]   Dasari, P., Krishna, G., Reddy, J., & Gudipalli, A. (2020). Forest fire detection using wireless sensor networks. International journal on smart sensing and intelligent systems, 13(1), 1–8. DOI:10.21307/ijssis-2020-006
[17]   Jilbab, A., & Bourouhou, A. (2020). Efficient forest fire detection system based on data fusion applied in wireless sensor networks. International journal on electrical engineering and informatics, 12(1), 1–18.
[18]   Bouakkaz, F., Ali, W., & Derdour, M. (2021). Forest fire detection using wireless multimedia sensor networks and image compression. Instrumentation mesure metrologie, 20(1), 57–63. DOI:10.18280/I2M.200108
[19]   Brito, T., Pereira, A. I., Lima, J., & Valente, A. (2020). Wireless sensor network for ignitions detection: An IoT approach. Electronics (Switzerland), 9(6), 893. DOI:10.3390/electronics9060893
[20]   Moussa, N., El Belrhiti El Alaoui, A., & Chaudet, C. (2020). A novel approach of WSN routing protocols comparison for forest fire detection. Wireless networks, 26(3), 1857–1867. DOI:10.1007/s11276-018-1872-3
[21]   Benzekri, W., Moussati, A. El, Moussaoui, O., & Berrajaa, M. (2020). Early forest fire detection system using wireless sensor network and deep learning. International journal of advanced computer science and applications, 11(5), 496–503. DOI:10.14569/IJACSA.2020.0110564
[22]   Dogra, R., Rani, S., & Sharma, B. (2021). A review to forest fires and its detection techniques using wireless sensor network. Advances in communication and computational technology: select proceedings of ICACCT 2019 (pp. 1339–1350). Springer.
[23]   Doolin, D. M., & Sitar, N. (2005, May). Wireless sensors for wildfire monitoring. In Smart structures and materials 2005: sensors and smart structures technologies for civil, mechanical, and aerospace systems (Vol. 5765, pp. 477-484). SPIE.
[24]   Lloret, J., Garcia, M., Bri, D., & Sendra, S. (2009). A wireless sensor network deployment for rural and forest fire detection and verification. Sensors, 9(11), 8722–8747. DOI:10.3390/s91108722
[25]   Hartung, C., Han, R., Seielstad, C., & Holbrook, S. (2006). FireWxNet: a multi-tiered portable wireless system for monitoring weather conditions in wildland fire environments [presentation]. MobiSys 2006 - fourth international conference on mobile systems, applications and services (Vol. 2006, pp. 28–41). https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/1134680.1134685
[26]   Son, B., Her, Y., & Kim, J. (2006). A design and implementation of forest-fires surveillance system based on wireless sensor networks for South Korea mountains. International journal of computer science and network security (IJCSNS), 6(9), 124–130.
[27]   Khalifeh, A., Mazunga, F., Nechibvute, A., & Nyambo, B. M. (2022). Microcontroller unit-based wireless sensor network nodes: a review. Sensors, 22(22), 8937. https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228937